Federal Arms in the Chickamauga Campaign

The ordnance returns of the Army of the Cumberland at the end of September 1863 show the results of a transformational year in weaponry. Since taking command of the army at the end of October 1862, General William S. Rosecrans had repeatedly pestered the War Department to supply his regiments with better firearms both to improve the command’s efficiency as well as expand its striking power. The results speak for themselves: for the infantrymen at the end of September 1863, 90% of them now carried Class I long arms (36,058 out of 39,959), 8.3% carried Class II arms, and a mere 1.5% carried Class III weapons. Most of the foreign-made weapons (except Enfields) were gone, and by and large the army had settled on a single common .58 caliber ammunition, although a few .54 caliber and .69 caliber weapons remained within the ranks.

The English-made Enfield rifle musket was by far the most common arm, carried by 56% of the men while the second-most common arm was the .58 caliber M1861 Springfield rifle musket carried by 27%. Other Class I arms included 380 Mississippi rifles, 188 Dresden/Suhl rifles (mostly in the 44th Illinois), 35 .58 caliber French rifles (15th Wisconsin), and 26 Liege rifles in the 77th Pennsylvania.

Repeating arms started to appear throughout the army. Most of the Spencers (as expected) were concentrated in the Lighting Brigade (1,367 of 1,707) and 39th Indiana (335) with a few more scattered indiscriminately. I was not surprised to find that the bulk of the army’s 378 Colt Revolving Rifles were in the 21st Ohio (243), but was surprised to find that the 15th Missouri also carried 44 of them and that another 27 Colts were scattered among the regiments of Colonel Luther Bradley’s all-Illinois brigade of the 20th Corps.

The Austrian-made Lorenz rifle headed the list of Class II weapons, carried by 2,570 men,  (1,930 .58 caliber versus only 640 .54 caliber), down significantly from the numbers employed at Stones River. Interestingly, 541 older model altered to percussion rifled muskets (these had started life as flintlocks) still found a place in the ranks, carried primarily by the 59th Illinois (278) and 88th Illinois (255) while the 2nd Missouri carried 178 of the army’s 196 .69 caliber French/Belgian rifles. A mere 584 men carried Class III weapons, all .69 caliber M1842 smoothbores primarily used by the 79th Pennsylvania (305), the 1st Wisconsin Infantry (119), and 10th Wisconsin Infantry (71).

The .577 caliber Enfield rifle musket was the most commonly carried longarm by the Army of the Cumberland at the Battle of Chickamauga. 

The weapons carried by the cavalry of the Army of the Cumberland also provide an interesting study; improving the weaponry and tactical deployment of his troopers had been a priority from Rosecrans from the very beginning of his tenure. Even in September 1863 his 18 regiments of cavalry still presented an eclectic mix of weapons as shown below including nine different types of carbines/rifles and ten different varieties of pistols. The ordnance reports break up cavalry weaponry into three sections: carbines & rifles, pistols, and sabers. Cavalry swords broke down into just two types: cavalry sabers, also known as the old “wrist breakers” predominated (4,273) while light cavalry sabers (649) were decidedly in the minority.

Starting with carbines and rifles, the most common was the .54 caliber Burnside carbine (1,565) closely followed by the .52 caliber Sharps carbine (1,500). Other common types included  911 .54 caliber Merrill’s carbines followed by 865 .50 caliber Smith’s carbines. The 2nd Michigan (186) and 4th Michigan Cavalry (171) regiments carried the bulk of the cavalry arm’s 387 Colt revolving rifles, while Gallagher’s (191), Ballard’s (54), Maynard’s (50), and 40 Colt Sporting rifles rounded out the list.

Colt sidearms predominated in Rosey’s cavalry with the .44 caliber Colt Army being by far the most common (4,529 out of 6,262 pistols carried), followed by 562 .36 caliber Colt Navy revolvers, 331 .45 caliber Starr revolvers (the 1st Wisconsin Cavalry carried 220 of them), 226 .36 caliber Whitney revolvers, 191 .36 caliber Remingtons, 149 .44 caliber Remingtons, 149 .36 caliber Savage revolvers, and 106 .44 caliber French-made Lefaucheux revolvers carried by the 1st Wisconsin Cavalry. A few odd balls include 18 .44 caliber Adams’ revolvers and a single .44 caliber Allen.

Wrapping up with the potent artillery arm, the ordnance reports show a total of 215 cannons in eight different varieties. The report shows the impact of a vast modernization drive in artillery; the ubiquitous old M1841 6-lb field gun that equipped a quarter of Rosey’s batteries at Stones River now mustered only ten guns spread across three batteries. Whereas the 10-lb Parrott rifle was once the most common cannon in the army, it’s 38 guns now ranked third behind Napoleons (66) and 3-inch Ordnance rifles (42) and just ahead of the 6-lb James rifles (35). Other pieces rounding out the arsenal included 16 M1841 12-lb howitzers, a half dozen of the 12-lb Mountain howitzers, and just two of the rare M1841 24-lb howitzers utilized by Battery M of the 4th U.S. 

The lists below are presented per the order of battle at Chickamauga. As in any such enterprise, I take full responsibility for any errors. If you have information that runs counter to what I’ve presented here, please let me know so that the list can be updated. The list is primarily based on the Third Quarter 1863 U.S. Ordnance Returns, period ending September 30, 1863, M-1281. In some cases, only a few companies made out reports but by and large the records are fairly complete.  

One item to note; these records were taken shortly after Chickamauga and the low numbers of weapons reported gives some indication of the number of casualties that the regiments suffered. The Army of the Cumberland took roughly 60,000 men into battle at Chickamauga and the combined records show about 40,000 infantry weapons and about 5,500 carbines remaining, so one can get some sense of the battle losses in weaponry. 

If only such detailed records existed for the Confederate Army of Tennessee... 

 

The monument to Battery M, 4th U.S. Light Artillery is among my personal favorites just from an aesthetic point of view. The six-gun battery employed four M1857 12-lb Napoleons and two M1841 24-lb howitzers, the only Federal battery on the field utilizing 24-lb howitzers. 

Army of the Cumberland- Rosecrans

1st Battalion, Ohio Sharpshooters: (212) Spencer’s breechloading rifles, triangular bayonet

10th Ohio Infantry (Provost): (718) .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets, (5) .58 caliber M1861 Springfield rifle muskets

15th Pennsylvania Cavalry (Escort): (384) .52 caliber Sharps carbines, (67) .54 caliber Burnside carbines, (610) .44 caliber Colt’s revolvers

 

14th Army Corps- Thomas

9th Michigan (Provost): (1,020) .54 caliber Austrian Lorenz rifles (745 in storage at Nashville)

Co. L, 1st Ohio Cavalry (Escort): (32). 36 caliber Colt’s revolvers, (31). 44 caliber Colt’s revolvers

 

First Division- Baird

First Brigade- Scribner

38th Indiana: (138) .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets, (70) .58 caliber M1861 Springfield rifle muskets, (2) .58 caliber Austrian Lorenz rifles

2nd Ohio: (172) .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets, (81) .58 caliber M1861 Springfield rifle muskets

33rd Ohio: (121) .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets, (117) .58 caliber M1861 Springfield rifle muskets, (3) .69 caliber M1842 smoothbores

94th Ohio: (186) .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets, (32) .58 caliber M1861 Springfield rifle muskets, (6) .58 caliber Austrian Lorenz rifles

10th Wisconsin: (71) .69 caliber M1842 smoothbores

 

Second Brigade- Starkweather

24th Illinois: (119) .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets, (84) .58 caliber M1861 Springfield rifle muskets, (11) .58 caliber Austrian Lorenz rifles, (3) .69 caliber French/Belgian rifles, (1) .56 caliber Colt’s revolving rifle

79th Pennsylvania: (305) .69 caliber M1842 smoothbores

1st Wisconsin: (119) .69 caliber M1842 smoothbores, (6) .58 caliber M1861 Springfield rifle muskets, (4) .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets

21st Wisconsin: (96) .58 caliber M1861 Springfield rifle muskets, (35) .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets, (29) .58 caliber Austrian Lorenz rifles

 

Third Brigade- John King

1st Battalion, 15th U.S.: (110) .58 caliber M1861 Springfield rifle muskets

1st Battalion, 16th U.S.: (24) .58 caliber M1861 Springfield rifle muskets

1st Battalion, 18th U.S.: (133) .58 caliber M1861 Springfield rifle muskets

2nd Battalion, 18th U.S.: (126) .58 caliber M1861 Springfield rifle muskets

1st Battalion, 19th U.S.: (109) .58 caliber M1861 Springfield rifle muskets

 

Divisional Artillery

4th Indiana Battery: (2) M1857 12-lb Napoleons, (2) 6-pdr James rifles, (2) M1841 12-lb howitzers

Battery A, 1st Michigan Light Artillery: (6) 10-pdr Parrott rifles

Battery H, 5th U.S. Light Artillery: (4) M1857 12-lb Napoleons, (2) 10-pdr Parrott rifles

 

Second Division- Negley

First Brigade- John Beatty

104th Illinois: (256) .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets

42nd Indiana: (218) .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets, (8) .58 caliber Austrian Lorenz rifles

88th Indiana: (251) .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets, (5) .69 French/Belgian rifles

15th Kentucky: (263) .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets, (15) .58 caliber M1861 Springfield rifle muskets, (1) .58 caliber Austrian Lorenz rifle

3rd Ohio (on detached duty): (358) .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets


Second Brigade- Timothy Stanley

19th Illinois: (269) .58 caliber M1861 Springfield rifle muskets, (2) .58 caliber M1840/1845 Mississippi rifles

11th Michigan: (358) .58 caliber M1861 Springfield rifle muskets

18th Ohio: (294) .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets, (2) .54 caliber Austrian Lorenz rifles, (1) .58 caliber M1861 Springfield rifle muskets

 

My closest Civil War ancestor, my great-great grandfather James P. Brown, served four years in the ranks of the 37th Indiana and while not heavily engaged at Chickamauga, the regimental monument is one of my favorite places to visit. 

"It is a moving experience to stand on the same ground as he did on the afternoon of September 19, 1863. Today it is quiet with Carolina Chickadees, Northern Cardinals, and the occasional blue jay adding their songs to the soft rustling of dead leaves in the forest. It is a peaceful place today. When Grandpa Brown arrived here that long ago Saturday afternoon, the roar of battle dwarfed anything he'd ever heard before. Smoke filled the woods and the air sung not with the songs of birds, but with the zip of bullets and thunderous crash of artillery. What a powerful place this sacred ground is..."


Third Brigade- Sirwell

37th Indiana: (328) .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets, (86) .58 caliber M1861 Springfield rifle muskets

21st Ohio: (243) .56 caliber Colt’s revolving rifles, (56) .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets, (6) .58 caliber M1861 Springfield rifle muskets, (2) .54 caliber Austrian Lorenz rifles

74th Ohio: (264) .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets, (2) .58 caliber Austrian Lorenz rifles

78th Pennsylvania: (372) .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets, (94) .58 caliber M1861 Springfield rifle muskets, (40) .69 caliber M1842 smoothbores

 

Divisional Artillery

Bridge’s Illinois Battery: (2) M1857 12-lb Napoleons, (4) 3-inch Ordnance rifles

Battery G, 1st Ohio Light Artillery: (4) M1857 12-lb Napoleons, (2) 3-inch Ordnance rifles

Battery M, 1st Ohio Light Artillery: (4) 6-pdr James rifles, (2) 3-inch Ordnance rifles

 

Third Division- Brannan

First Brigade- Connell

82nd Indiana: (86) .58 caliber Austrian Lorenz rifles, (9) .58 caliber M1861 Springfield rifle muskets, (5) .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets

17th Ohio: (402) .58 caliber M1861 Springfield rifle muskets, (11) .54 caliber Austrian Lorenz rifles, (7) .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets, (1) .58 caliber M1840/45 Mississippi rifle

31st Ohio: (170) .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets, (88) .58 caliber M1861 Springfield rifle muskets

38th Ohio: (381) .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets, (17) .58 caliber M1861 Springfield rifle muskets

 

Second Brigade- Croxton

10th Indiana: (422) .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets

74th Indiana: (132) .58 caliber M1861 Springfield rifle muskets, (79) .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets, (64) .58 caliber Austrian Lorenz rifles

4th Kentucky: (236) .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets, (6) .58 caliber M1861 Springfield rifle muskets, (2) .69 caliber altered to percussion rifled muskets

10th Kentucky: (239) .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets, (1) .58 caliber M1861 Springfield rifle muskets, (2) .69 caliber altered to percussion rifled muskets, (1) .58 caliber Austrian Lorenz rifle

14th Ohio: (346) .58 caliber M1861 Springfield rifle muskets, (7) .69 caliber M1842 smoothbores, (1) .577 caliber Enfield rifle musket

 

Third Brigade- Van Derveer

87th Indiana: (173) .58 caliber M1861 Springfield rifle muskets, (2) .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets

2nd Minnesota: (136) .58 caliber M1861 Springfield rifle muskets, (107) .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets, (41) .58 caliber M1840/45 Mississippi rifles, (13) .56 caliber Colt’s revolving rifles, (3) .69 caliber altered to percussion rifled muskets, (1) .54 caliber Austrian Lorenz rifle

9th Ohio: (359) .58 caliber M1861 Springfield rifle muskets, (12) .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets, (10) .56 caliber Colt’s revolving rifles, (8) .69 caliber M1842 smoothbores

35th Ohio: (296) .58 caliber M1861 Springfield rifle muskets, (1) .577 caliber Enfield rifle musket

 

Divisional Artillery

Battery D, 1st Michigan Light Artillery: (2) 10-pdr Parrott rifles, (2) 6-pdr James rifles, (2) M1841 12-pdr howitzers

Battery C, 1st Ohio Light Artillery: (4) 6-pdr James rifles, (2) M1857 12-pdr Napoleons

Battery I, 4th U.S. Light Artillery: (4) M1857 12-pdr Napoleons

 

Fourth Division- Reynolds

First Brigade- Wilder

92nd Illinois: (280) .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets, (176) .52 caliber Spencer rifles

98th Illinois: (354) .52 caliber Spencer rifles, (9) .56 caliber Colt’s revolving rifles

123rd Illinois: (260) .52 caliber Spencer rifles, (2) .58 caliber Austrian Lorenz rifles

17th Indiana: (450) .52 caliber Spencer rifles, (2) .58 caliber M1861 Springfield rifle muskets

72nd Indiana: (127) .52 caliber Spencer rifles, (43) .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets, (38) .58 caliber M1861 Springfield rifle muskets

 

Second Brigade- Edward King

80th Illinois: (360) .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets

68th Indiana: (198) .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets, (8) .58 caliber M1861 Springfield rifle muskets

75th Indiana: (344) .58 caliber M1861 Springfield rifle muskets

101st Indiana: (230) .58 caliber M1861 Springfield rifle muskets, (2) .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets, (1) .69/.71 caliber Belgian/Vincennes rifle

105th Ohio: (216) .58 caliber M1861 Springfield rifle muskets, (1) .577 caliber Enfield rifle musket

 

Third Brigade- Turchin

18th Kentucky: (240) .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets

11th Ohio: (400) .58 caliber Springfield rifle muskets

36th Ohio: (546) .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets

92nd Ohio: (281) .58 caliber M1861 Springfield rifle muskets, (55) .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets

 

Divisional Artillery

18th Indiana Battery: (6) 3-inch Ordnance rifles, (4) M1841 12-lb Mountain howitzers

19th Indiana Battery: (4) M1857 12-pdr Napoleons, (2) 3-inch Ordnance rifles

21st Indiana Battery: (6) M1857 12-pdr Napoleons

 

The monument of the 1st Ohio Infantry features the star emblem of the first 20th Army Corps. In April 1864, a second 20th Army Corps was formed from the remnants of the 11th and 12th Corps of the Army of the Potomac and gained much fame with Sherman's army during the Atlanta campaign. 

20th Army Corps- McCook

Co. I, 2nd Kentucky Cavalry (Escort): (53) .54 caliber Merrill’s carbines, (63) .44 caliber Colt’s revolvers, 57 light cavalry sabers

 

First Division- Davis

First Brigade- Post

59th Illinois: (278) .69 altered to percussion rifled muskets, (3) .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets

74th Illinois: (231) .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets

75th Illinois: (119) .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets, (47) .58 caliber M1861 Springfield rifle muskets, (2) .69 caliber French/Belgian rifles

22nd Indiana: (235) .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets

 

Second Brigade- Carlin

21st Illinois: (121) .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets, (31) .58 caliber Austrian Lorenz rifles, (7) .54 caliber Austrian Lorenz rifles, (4) .58 caliber M1861 Springfield rifle muskets

38th Illinois: (161) .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets, (8) .58 caliber M1861 Springfield rifle muskets

81st Indiana: (192) .58 caliber Austrian Lorenz rifles, (35) .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets, (16) .58 caliber M1861 Springfield rifle muskets

101st Ohio: (199) .58 caliber M1861 Springfield rifle muskets, (7) .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets

 

Third Brigade- Heg

25th Illinois: (196) .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets, (52) .58 caliber M1861 Springfield rifle muskets

35th Illinois: (205) .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets, (37) .58 caliber M1861 Springfield rifle muskets, (4) .58 caliber Dresden/Suhl rifles, (1) .69 caliber French/Belgian rifle

8th Kansas: (127) .58 caliber M1861 Springfield rifle muskets, (72) .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets, (6) .54 caliber Jager rifles

15th Wisconsin: (133) .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets, (35) .58 caliber French rifles, (8) .58 caliber M1861 Springfield rifle muskets

 

Divisional Artillery

2nd Minnesota Battery: (2) 10-pdr Parrott rifles, (4) M1857 12-pdr Napoleons

5th Wisconsin Battery: (2) 10-pdr Parrott rifles, (2) M1857 12-pdr Napoleons, (2) M1841 12-pdr Mountain howitzers

8th Wisconsin Battery: (2) M1857 12-pdr Napoleons, (4) 3-inch Ordnance rifles

 

Second Division- Johnson

First Brigade- Willich

89th Illinois: (206) .58 caliber M1861 Springfield rifle muskets, (5) .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets

32nd Indiana: (389) .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets, (33) .58 caliber M1861 Springfield rifle muskets

39th Indiana (on detached duty): (335) .52 caliber Spencer rifles, (141) light cavalry sabers

15th Ohio: (262) .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets

49th Ohio: (259) .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets, (2) .69 caliber M1842 smoothbores

 

Second Brigade- Dodge

79th Illinois: (61) .58 caliber M1861 Springfield rifle muskets, (33) .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets

29th Indiana: (180) .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets, (9) .58 caliber M1861 Springfield rifle muskets

30th Indiana: (110) .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets, (54) .58 caliber M1861 Springfield rifle muskets, (1) .69 caliber altered to percussion rifled musket

77th Pennsylvania: (75) .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets, (34) .58 caliber M1861 Springfield rifle muskets, (26) .577 caliber French/Liege rifles

 

Third Brigade- Baldwin

6th Indiana: (176) .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets, (68) .58 caliber M1861 Springfield rifle muskets

5th Kentucky: (191) .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets, (5) .58 caliber M1861 Springfield rifle muskets, (3) .58 caliber Austrian Lorenz rifles, (1) .54 caliber Austrian Lorenz rifle

1st Ohio: (207) .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets, (25) .58 caliber M1861 Springfield rifle muskets, (2) .69 Belgian/Vincennes rifles

93rd Ohio: (234) .58 caliber M1861 Springfield rifle muskets, (18) .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets, (1) .58 caliber Austrian Lorenz rifle

 

Divisional Artillery

5th Indiana Battery: (4) 6-pdr James rifles, (2) M1857 12-pdr Napoleons

Battery A, 1st Ohio Light Artillery: (4) 6-pdr James rifles, (2) M1857 12-pdr Napoleons

20th Ohio Battery: (4) 3-inch Ordnance rifles, (2) M1857 12-pdr Napoleons

 

Third Division- Sheridan

First Brigade- Lytle

36th Illinois: (347) .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets, (50) .58 caliber M1861 Springfield rifle muskets

88th Illinois: (255) .69 caliber altered to percussion rifled muskets, (44) .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets, (32) .58 caliber Austrian Lorenz rifles, (1) .69 caliber M1842 Remington/Justice rifled musket

21st Michigan: (166) .54 caliber Austrian Lorenz rifles, (17) .56 caliber Colt’s revolving rifles, (1) .58 caliber Enfield rifle musket

24th Wisconsin: (246) .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets, (14) .58 caliber Lorenz rifles

 

Second Brigade- Laiboldt

44th Illinois: (184) .58 caliber Dresden/Suhl rifles, (15) .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets, (3) .58 caliber M1861 Springfield rifle muskets

73rd Illinois: (118) .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets, (4) .58 caliber M1861 Springfield rifle muskets, (6) .69 caliber French/Belgian rifles

2nd Missouri: (178) .69 caliber French/Belgian rifles, (82) .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets

15th Missouri: (140) .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets, (44) .56 caliber Colt’s revolving rifles, (24) .58 caliber M1861 Springfield rifle muskets

 

Third Brigade- Bradley

22nd Illinois: (139) .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets, (30) .58 caliber M1861 Springfield rifle muskets, (7) .56 caliber Colt’s revolving rifles, (6) .58 caliber Austrian Lorenz rifles

27th Illinois: (351) .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets, (9) .56 caliber Colt’s revolving rifles, (5) .52 caliber Spencer rifles, (5) .58 caliber M1861 Springfield rifle muskets

42nd Illinois: (216) .58 caliber M1861 Springfield rifle muskets, (27) .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets, (6) .56 caliber Colt’s revolving rifles

51st Illinois: (87) .54 caliber Austrian Lorenz rifles, (9) .58 caliber M1861 Springfield rifle muskets, (5) .56 caliber Colt’s revolving rifles, (1) .577 caliber Enfield rifle musket

 

Divisional Artillery

Battery C, 1st Illinois Light Artillery: (4) 3-inch Ordnance rifles, (2) M1841 12-pdr howitzers

11th Indiana Battery: (4) M1857 12-pdr Napoleons, (2) 3-inch Ordnance rifles

Battery G, 1st Missouri Light Artillery: (4) M1857 12-pdr Napoleons, (2) 10-pdr Parrott rifles

 

Detail of the 51st Ohio monument on the south end of the Chickamauga battlefield. 

21st Army Corps- Crittenden

Co. K, 15th Illinois Cavalry (Escort): no report

 

First Division- Wood

First Brigade- Buell

100th Illinois: (209) .577 Enfield rifle muskets, (25) .58 caliber M1861 Springfield rifle muskets, (11) .58 caliber Austrian Lorenz rifles

58th Indiana: (235) .58 caliber Enfield rifle muskets, (8) .58 caliber M1861 Springfield rifle muskets

13th Michigan: (94) .58 caliber M1861 Springfield rifle muskets, (15) .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets

26th Ohio: (147) .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets, (18) .58 caliber M1861 Springfield rifle muskets, (2) .56 caliber Colt’s revolving rifles

 

Second Brigade- Wagner

15th Indiana: (245) .58 caliber M1861 Springfield rifle muskets, (60) .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets

40th Indiana: (385) .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets

51st Indiana: (432) .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets, (14) .58 caliber M1861 Springfield rifle muskets

57th Indiana: (304) .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets, (18) .58 caliber M1861 Springfield rifle muskets

97th Ohio: (453) .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets

 

Third Brigade- Harker

73rd Indiana (on detached duty): (332) .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets

3rd Kentucky: (306) .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets

64th Ohio: (210) .58 caliber M1861 Springfield rifle muskets, (21) .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets

65th Ohio: (119) .58 caliber M1861 Springfield rifle muskets, (54) .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets

125th Ohio: (213) .58 caliber M1861 Springfield rifle muskets, (4) .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets

 

Divisional Artillery

8th Indiana Battery: (4) 10-pdr Parrott rifles, (2) M1857 12-pdr Napoleons

10th Indiana Battery: (4) 10-pdr Parrott rifles, (2) M1841 12-pdr howitzers

6th Ohio Battery: (4) 10-pdr Parrott rifles, (2) M1857 12-pdr Napoleons

 

Second Division- Palmer

First Brigade- Cruft

31st Indiana: (250) .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets, (58) .58 caliber Austrian Lorenz rifles, (43) .58 caliber M1861 Springfield rifle muskets

1st Kentucky: (241) .54 caliber Austrian Lorenz rifles

2nd Kentucky: (208) .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets, (27) .58 caliber Model 1840/45 Mississippi rifles, (2) .58 caliber M1861 Springfield rifle muskets

90th Ohio: (292) .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets

 

Second Brigade- Hazen

9th Indiana: (240) .58 caliber M1861 Springfield rifle muskets

6th Kentucky: (250) .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets

41st Ohio: (214) .58 caliber M1861 Springfield rifle muskets, (14) .69 caliber M1842 smoothbores

124th Ohio: (178) .58 caliber M1861 Springfield rifle muskets

 

Third Brigade- Grose

84th Illinois: (312) .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets

36th Indiana: (290) .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets, (8) .58 caliber M1861 Springfield rifle muskets

23rd Kentucky: (236) .54 caliber Austrian Lorenz rifles, (22) .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets

6th Ohio: (201) .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets, (71) .58 caliber M1861 Springfield rifle muskets

24th Ohio: (75) .58 caliber M1861 Springfield rifle muskets, (66) .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets

 

Divisional Artillery

Battery B, 1st Ohio Light Artillery: (4) 6-pdr James rifles, (2) M1841 6-pdr field guns

Battery F, 1st Ohio Light Artillery: (4) 6-pdr James rifles, (2) M1841 12-pdr howitzers

Battery H, 4th U.S. Light Artillery: (4) M1841 12-pdr howitzers

Battery M, 4th U.S. Light Artillery: (4) M1857 12-pdr Napoleons, (2) M1841 24-pdr howitzers


Third Division- Van Cleve

First Brigade- Samuel Beatty

79th Indiana: (256) .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets, (6) .58 caliber M1861 Springfield rifle muskets

9th Kentucky: (206) .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets, (4) .58 caliber M1861 Springfield rifle muskets

17th Kentucky: (349) .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets, (2) .58 caliber M1861 Springfield rifle muskets

19th Ohio: (301) .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets, (6) .58 caliber M1840/45 Mississippi rifles

 

Second Brigade- Dick

44th Indiana: (187) .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets, (8) .58 caliber M1861 Springfield rifle muskets, (1) .58 caliber Austrian Lorenz rifle

86th Indiana: (218) .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets

13th Ohio: (242) .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets, (40) .58 caliber M1861 Springfield rifle muskets, (4) .69 caliber M1842 smoothbores

59th Ohio: (313) .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets, (16) .58 caliber M1861 Springfield rifle muskets

 

Third Brigade- Barnes

35th Indiana: (141) .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets, (19) .58 caliber M1861 Springfield rifle muskets, (7) .56 caliber Colt’s revolving rifles

8th Kentucky: (195) .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets

21st Kentucky: (260) .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets, (36) .58 caliber M1861 Springfield rifle muskets

51st Ohio: (188) .577 Enfield rifle muskets, (22) .58 caliber M1861 Springfield rifle muskets, (11) .69 caliber M1842 smoothbores, (5) .56 caliber Colt’s revolving rifles

99th Ohio: (276) .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets (33 with saber bayonets), (1) .58 caliber M1861 Springfield rifle musket, (1) .58 caliber Austrian Lorenz rifle

 

Divisional Artillery

7th Indiana Battery: (4) 10-pdr Parrott rifles, (2) M1857 12-pdr Napoleons

26th Pennsylvania Light Artillery: (4) M1841 6-pdr field guns, (2) 6-pdr James rifles

3rd Wisconsin Battery: (4) 10-pdr Parrott rifles, (2) M1841 12-lb howitzers

 

Yours truly standing next to the 89th Ohio Infantry monument atop Snodgrass Hill earlier this year during the Seminar in the Woods. My great-great-great grandpa Joseph H. Carter served in Co. H of the 89th and somehow escaped capture. I had a total of three direct ancestors on the field at Chickamauga and two more close relatives; all survived although I can only imagine my grandpa Carter's tale of getting off this ridge with his skin intact on the evening of September 20, 1863. Perhaps he could trade notes with my great-great-great-great uncle James McLargin was fought alongside him on Snodgrass in the ranks of Co. C of the 21st Ohio. James escaped capture, too, although slightly wounded in the process. Other ancestors served in the 37th Indiana, 1st Ohio Cavalry, and the 39th Indiana Mounted Infantry. During the war, the Army of the Cumberland was the family business. 

Reserve Corps- Granger

Co. F, 1st Missouri Cavalry (Escort): (40) .44 caliber Colt sporting rifles, (39) .52 caliber Sharps’ carbines, (59) .44 caliber Colt revolvers, (21) .36 caliber Whitney revolvers, (34) cavalry sabers

First Division- Steedman

First Brigade- Whitaker

96th Illinois: (291) .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets

115th Illinois: (303) .58 caliber M1840/45 Mississippi rifles, (15) .58 caliber M1861 Springfield rifle muskets, (13) .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets

84th Indiana: (386) .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets

22nd Michigan: (156) .54 caliber Austrian Lorenz rifles

40th Ohio: (285) .58 caliber M1861 Springfield rifle muskets, (157) .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets, (1) .69 caliber French/Belgian rifle

89th Ohio: (117) .58 caliber M1861 Springfield rifle muskets

18th Ohio Battery: (6) 3-inch Ordnance rifles

 

Second Brigade- Mitchell

78th Illinois: (209) .58 caliber M1861 Springfield rifle muskets

98th Ohio: (236) .58 caliber M1861 Springfield rifle muskets

113th Ohio: (160) .58 caliber M1861 Springfield rifle muskets, (56) .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets

121st Ohio: (225) .58 caliber M1861 Springfield rifle muskets

Battery M, 1st Illinois Light Artillery: (4) M1857 12-pdr Napoleons, (2) 3-inch Ordnance rifles

 

Second Division

Second Brigade- Dan McCook

85th Illinois: (360) .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets, (41) .58 caliber Austrian Lorenz rifles, (2) .58 caliber M1861 Springfield rifle muskets

86th Illinois: (343) .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets, (37) .58 caliber Austrian Lorenz rifles, (8) .58 caliber M1861 Springfield rifle muskets

125th Illinois: (347) .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets, (5) .58 caliber M1861 Springfield rifle muskets

52nd Ohio: (406) .58 caliber M1861 Springfield rifle muskets, (8) .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets

69th Ohio: (439) .58 caliber M1861 Springfield rifle muskets

Battery I, 2nd Illinois Light Artillery: (2) M1857 12-pdr Napoleons, (2) 6-pdr James rifles, (2) 10-pdr Parrott rifles

 

Cavalry Corps- Robert Mitchell

First Division- Edward McCook

First Brigade- Campbell

2nd Michigan Cavalry: (186) .56 caliber Colt’s revolving rifles, (3) .52 caliber Sharps’ carbines, (208) .44 caliber Colt revolvers, (82) .44 caliber Remington revolvers, (16) .44 caliber Adams’ revolvers, (1) .44 caliber Allen’s revolver, (200) cavalry sabers, (51) light cavalry sabers

9th Pennsylvania Cavalry: (420) .54 caliber Burnside carbines, (51) .52 caliber Sharps carbines, (495) .44 caliber Colt’s revolvers, (1) .45 caliber Starr revolver, (226) cavalry sabers, (129) light cavalry sabers

1st Tennessee Cavalry (U.S.): (191) .51 caliber Gallagher’s carbines, (130) .36 caliber Whitney’s revolvers, (55) .45 caliber Starr’s revolvers, (233) cavalry sabers

 

Second Brigade- Ray

2nd Indiana Cavalry: (384) .50 caliber Smith’s carbines, (28) .56 caliber Colt’s revolving rifles, (161) .44 caliber Colt’s revolvers, (136) .44 caliber Remington revolvers, (69) .36 caliber Colt’s revolvers, (41) .36 caliber Remington revolvers, (322) cavalry sabers, (54) light cavalry sabers

4th Indiana Cavalry: (209) .50 caliber Smith’s carbines, (301) .44 caliber Colt’s revolvers, (10) .44 caliber Remington revolvers, (215) cavalry sabers

2nd Tennessee Cavalry (U.S.): (224) .54 caliber Merrill’s carbines, (70) .54 caliber Burnside carbines, (345) .44 caliber Colt’s revolvers, (300) cavalry sabers

1st Wisconsin Cavalry: (373) .54 caliber Merrill’s carbines, (50) .50 caliber Maynard’s carbines, (17) .52 caliber Sharps carbines, (220) .45 caliber Starr revolvers, (106) .44 caliber M1858 Lefaucheux revolvers, (97) .36 caliber Savage’s revolvers, (1) .36 caliber Colt revolver, (319) cavalry sabers, (86) light cavalry sabers

Battery D, 1st Ohio Light Artillery: (4) 3-inch Ordnance rifles

 

Third Brigade- Watkins

4th Kentucky Cavalry (Co. B return only): (28) .52 caliber Sharps’ carbines, (2) .56 caliber Colt’s revolving rifles, (2) .45 caliber Starr’s revolvers, (15) cavalry sabers

5th Kentucky Cavalry: (99) .54 caliber Burnside’s carbines, (76) .44 caliber Colt’s revolvers, (20) .45 caliber Starr’s revolvers, (84) cavalry sabers

6th Kentucky Cavalry: (54) .52 caliber Ballard’s carbines, (40) .44 caliber Colt’s revolvers, (16) .36 caliber Colt’s revolvers, (11) cavalry sabers, (3) light cavalry sabers

 

Second Division- Crook

First Brigade- Minty

3rd Indiana Cavalry (2nd Battalion): (76) .54 caliber Burnside carbines, (34) .52 caliber Sharps carbines, (10) .50 caliber Smith’s carbines, (75) .36 caliber Colt’s revolvers, (40) .45 caliber Starr’s revolvers, (34) .44 caliber Colt’s revolvers, (168) cavalry sabers

4th Michigan Cavalry: (171) .56 caliber Colt’s revolving rifles, (286) .44 caliber Colt’s revolvers, (132) cavalry sabers, (20) light cavalry sabers

7th Pennsylvania Cavalry: (242) .50 Smith’s carbines, (115) .54 caliber Burnside carbines, (22) .52 caliber Sharps carbines, (288) .44 caliber Colt revolvers, (57) .44 caliber Remington revolvers, (46) .36 caliber Savage’s revolvers, (2) .44 caliber Adams’ revolvers, (463) cavalry sabers

4th U.S. Cavalry: (588) .54 caliber Burnside carbines, (105) .52 caliber Sharps carbines, (20) .50 caliber Smith’s carbines, (731) .44 caliber Colt’s revolvers, (99) .36 caliber Colt’s revolvers, (50) .36 caliber Remington revolvers, (525) cavalry sabers, (110) light cavalry sabers

 

Second Brigade- Long

2nd Kentucky Cavalry (except Co. I): (250) .54 caliber Merrill’s carbines, (72) .52 caliber Sharps’ carbines, (177) .44 caliber Colt’s revolvers, (66) .36 caliber Colt’s revolvers, (8) .36 caliber Whitney’s revolvers, (157) cavalry sabers, (83) light cavalry sabers

1st Ohio Cavalry (minus Cos A, C, and L): (298) .52 caliber Sharps’ carbines, (200) .36 caliber Colt’s revolvers, (100) .36 caliber Remington revolvers, (95) .44 caliber Colt’s revolvers, (5) .44 Whitney’s revolvers, (388) cavalry sabers

3rd Ohio Cavalry: (154) .52 caliber Sharps’ carbines, (73) .54 caliber Burnside carbines, (11) .54 caliber Merrill’s carbines, (153) .44 caliber Colt’s revolvers, (62) .36 caliber Whitney’s revolvers, (3) .36 caliber Savage’s revolvers, (169) cavalry sabers

4th Ohio Cavalry: (293) .52 caliber Sharps carbines, (57) .54 caliber Burnside carbines, (376) .44 caliber Colt’s revolvers, (3) .45 caliber Starr revolvers, (255) cavalry sabers, (113) light cavalry sabers

Divisional Artillery

Chicago Board of Trade Battery: (4) 6-pdr M1841 field guns, (3) 6-pdr James rifles

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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