Federal Arms in the Stones River Campaign

 The following list, constructed after many years of research, lists unit by unit which type of weapons were carried by the Army of the Cumberland during the Stones River campaign. A number of sources were consulted including state ordnance reports, Federal quarterly ordnance reports (thank you Research Arsenal), Ken Baumann’s Arming the Suckers, regimental histories and memoirs, captured ordnance reports, and consultation with knowledgeable experts in the field of firearms.

Some of this information has been shared on the blog before in “Rosy’s Heavy Metal: Artillery of the Army of the Cumberland” or “Shoulder Arms: How Sheridan’s and Davis’s Divisions Were Armed at Stones River” but this is the first time the army as a whole has been presented.

The overall conclusion I drew from looking at this data is that the Army of the Cumberland in December 1862 was an organization in the midst of transformation as far as arms. Many of the regiments still retained their original issue weapons which ran the gamut from the superb to the poor, but a number of regiments had also recently acquired state-of-the-art Model 1861 Springfield rifle muskets and this trend would continue throughout 1863 as the army traded in its “odd-ball” mix of foreign or outdated arms, moving towards a single common caliber (.58) for infantry long arms.

You’ll see quite a mix of foreign arms within this list, with the Enfield  being the most common followed by the Austrian Lorenz rifle. You’ll also note that many of the regiments possessed a mix of firearms; its not uncommon to find a regiment with three different types of weapons of three different calibers which certainly posed a perplexing problem for the hard-working ordnance sergeants in the regiments.

As in any endeavor of this kind, errors can creep in; I have tried my best to cross check information provided below with multiple sources (where available) but if you have new information that may alter this list, please contact me so I can update this file.

 

The rifling is plainly evident in this brass 6-pdr James rifle produced by Miles Greenwood's Eagle Foundry in Cincinnati in 1862. A number of Federal batteries at Stones River employed James Rifles but this cannon was on its way out, being largely replaced by newer 3" Ordnance Rifles or Napoleons in 1863. 

Army of the Cumberland- Rosecrans

10th Ohio Infantry: Mostly .69 caliber U.S. Model smoothbores, one co. had .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets

9th Michigan Infantry- .54 caliber M1841 Mississippi rifles

 

Right Wing- McCook

First Division- Davis

First Brigade- Post

59th Illinois: Mixed: .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets, .54 caliber M1841 Mississippi rifles, .69 caliber M1842 rifled muskets

74th Illinois: .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets

75th Illinois: Mixed: .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets, .58 caliber Austrian Lorenz rifles, .54 caliber Austrian Lorenz rifles

22nd Indiana: Mixed: .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets, .54 caliber M1841 Mississippi rifles

 

Second Brigade- Carlin

21st Illinois: Mixed: .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets, .54 caliber Austrian Lorenz rifles, .54 caliber M1841 Mississippi rifles

38th Illinois: Mixed: (301) .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets, (7) .58 caliber Belgian Dresden/Suhl rifles, (1) .69 caliber M1842 altered to percussion smoothbore

101st Ohio: .58 caliber M1861 Springfield rifle muskets

15th Wisconsin: .58 caliber Belgian rifles

2nd Minnesota Battery:  4 6-pdr M1841 smoothbore field guns and 2 12-pdr M1841 smoothbore howitzers (6 guns)

 

Third Brigade- Woodruff

25th Illinois: Mixed: (161) .69 caliber M1842 rifled muskets, (83). 69 caliber M1842 smoothbores, (21) .58 caliber M1861 Springfield rifle muskets, (35) .54 caliber M1841 Mississippi rifles, (38) .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets, (6) .69 caliber French/Belgian rifle muskets

35th Illinois: Mixed: (107 .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets, .54 caliber Austrian Lorenz rifles, (244) .69 caliber M1842 rifled muskets, (3) .58 caliber Dresden/Suhl rifle muskets, (6) .69 caliber French/Belgian rifle muskets

81st Indiana: .58 caliber Belgian rifles

8th Wisconsin Battery: 2 6-pdr M1841 smoothbore field guns, 2 10-pdr Parrott rifles (4 guns)

 

Second Division- Johnson

First Brigade- Willich

89th Illinois: (471) .58 caliber M1861 Springfield rifle muskets

32nd Indiana: .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets

39th Indiana: .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets

15th Ohio: .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets (2 companies), balance carried .69 caliber M1842 altered rifled muskets (Greenwoods)

49th Ohio: .69 caliber M1842 altered rifled muskets (Greenwoods)

Battery A, 1st OVLA: 2 6-pdr M1841 smoothbore field guns, 2 12-pdr M1841 smoothbore howitzers, 2 6-pdr James rifles (6 guns)

 

Second Brigade- Kirk

29th Indiana: .69 caliber M1842 rifle muskets (one company), balance carried .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets

30th Indiana: .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets, a few .58 caliber M1861 Springfield rifle muskets

34th Illinois: (143) .69 caliber M1842 rifled muskets, (69) .58 caliber M1861 Springfield rifle muskets, (4) .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets

79th Illinois: (214) .58 caliber Springfield rifle muskets

77th Pennsylvania: Mixed: .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets, .58 caliber Dresden/Suhl rifle muskets, .577 French Liege rifles, a few .58 caliber M1861 Springfield rifle muskets

 

Third Brigade- Baldwin

6th Indiana: .69 caliber M1842 rifled muskets, some .58 caliber M1861 Springfield rifle muskets

5th Kentucky: .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets

1st Ohio: .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets

93rd Ohio: .58 caliber M1861 Springfield rifle muskets

5th Indiana Battery: 2 10-pdr Parrott rifles, 2 6-pdr James rifles, 2 M1857 smoothbore Napoleons (6 guns)


Edward Blake of Co. H, 24th Wisconsin holding the regiment's tattered national colors. 


Third Division- Sheridan

First Brigade- Sill

36th Illinois: Mixed: (51) .69 caliber M1822 smoothbore muskets, .54 caliber M1841 Mississippi rifles, (37) .69 caliber M1842 rifled muskets, (84) .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets, (35) .58 caliber M1861 Springfield rifle muskets, (2) .58 caliber Austrian Lorenz rifles

88th Illinois: (380) .69 caliber M1816 altered to percussion rifled muskets

21st Michigan: .54 caliber Austrian Lorenz rifles

24th Wisconsin: .54 caliber Austrian Lorenz rifles

4th Indiana Battery: 2 6-pdr M1841 smoothbore field guns, 2 12-pdr M1841 smoothbore howitzers, and 2 6-pdr James rifled cannon (6 guns)

 Second Brigade- Schaefer

44th Illinois: (290) .58 M1857 Belgian Dresden/Suhl rifles

73rd Illinois: .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets (two companies), unknown number of .69 caliber M1842 rifled muskets, balance of regiment with .69 caliber Prussian muskets of “poor quality”

2nd Missouri: .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets, .69 caliber French short rifles

15th Missouri: .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets, .58 caliber rifles (unknown make)

Battery G, 1st Missouri Light Artillery: 2 10-pdr Parrott rifles, 4 6-pdr James rifles (6 guns)

 

Third Brigade- Roberts

22nd Illinois: (144) .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets, (39) .58 caliber M1861 Springfield rifle muskets, (34) .69 caliber French/Belgian rifles muskets

27th Illinois: (449) .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets

42nd Illinois: (361) .58 caliber M1841 Mississippi rifles with sword bayonets

51st Illinois: (214) .54 caliber Lorenz rifle muskets, (5) .58 caliber M1861 Springfield rifle muskets, (2) .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets

Battery C, 1st Illinois Light Artillery: 2 12-pdr M1841 smoothbore howitzers, 4 12-pdr M1857 smoothbore Napoleons (6 guns)

 

Private Joseph R. Prentice, Co. E, 1st Battalion, 19th U.S. Infantry was later awarded the Medal of Honor for his actions on the afternoon of December 31, 1862, when he recovered the body of his dead commanding officer Major Stephen D. Carpenter from the battlefield under heavy enemy fire.

Center Corps- Thomas

First Division- Rousseau

First Brigade- Scribner

38th Indiana: Mixed: .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets, .69 caliber altered to percussion muskets, a few .58 caliber M1861 Springfield rifle muskets

2nd Ohio: .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets, a few .69 caliber M1842 smoothbores (Greenwoods)

33rd Ohio: .58 caliber M1842 rifled muskets (Greenwoods), .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets (two companies), a few .58 caliber M1861 Springfields

94th Ohio: .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets

10th Wisconsin: .69 caliber M1842 smoothbores

 

Second Brigade-Beatty

42nd Indiana: .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets, .69 caliber French/Belgian rifles

88th Indiana: .69/,70 caliber Austrian smoothbores

15th Kentucky: .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets and .69 caliber M1842 smoothbores

3rd Ohio: .69 caliber M1842 smoothbores, a few .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets

Battery A, 1st Michigan Light Artillery: 6 10-pdr Parrott rifles (6 guns)

 

Third Brigade- Starkweather

24th Illinois: Mixed: (99) .58 caliber M1861 Springfield rifle muskets, (70) .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets, (130) .69 caliber French/Belgian rifle muskets, (15) .58 caliber Austrian Lorenz rifles

79th Pennsylvania: .69 caliber M1842 smoothbores

1st Wisconsin: .69 caliber M1842 rifled muskets, .69/.71 caliber Belgian/Vincennes rifles (one company)

21st Wisconsin: .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets and .58 caliber Austrian Lorenz rifles

Battery A, Kentucky Light Artillery: 2 6-pdr M1841 smoothbore field guns, 2 6-pdr James rifles, 2 10-pdr Parrott rifles (6 guns)

 

Fourth Brigade- Shepherd

1st Battalion, 15th U.S.: .58 caliber M1861 Springfield rifle muskets

1st Battalion, 16th U.S.: .58 caliber M1861 Springfield rifle muskets

1st Battalion, 18th U.S.: .58 caliber M1861 Springfield rifle muskets

2nd Battalion, 18th U.S.: .58 caliber M1861 Springfield rifle muskets

1st Battalion, 19th U.S.: .58 caliber M1861 Springfield rifle muskets

 

Private Felix C. Balderrey, Co. A, 11th Michigan

Second Division- Negley

Second Brigade- Stanley

19th Illinois: (268) .58 caliber M1861 Springfield rifle muskets

11th Michigan: .58 caliber M1861 Springfield rifle muskets

18th Ohio: .69 caliber M1842 rifled muskets (Greenwoods), .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets (two companies)

69th Ohio: .54 caliber Lorenz rifles

Battery M, 1st OVLA: 2 12-pdr M1841 smoothbore howitzers, 1 James rifle, and 1 10-pdr Parrott rifle (4 guns)

 

Third Brigade- Miller

37th Indiana: Mixed: .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets, .58 caliber M1861 Springfield rifle muskets, .69 French/Belgian rifles

21st Ohio: .54 caliber Lorenz rifles, .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets (two companies)

74th Ohio: .69 caliber Prussian Potsdam muskets, .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets (two companies)

78th Pennsylvania: .69 caliber M1842 smoothbores (four companies), .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets (three companies), a few .58 caliber M1861 Springfield rifle muskets

Battery G, 1st OVLA: 2 12-pdr M1841 smoothbore howitzers, 2 6-pdr Wiard rifles, 2 12-pdr Wiard rifles (6 guns)

Battery B, Kentucky Light Artillery: 1 6-pdr M1841 smoothbore field gun, 1 10-pdr Parrott rifle, and 1 6-pdr James rifle (3 guns)

 

Third Division- Mitchell

First Brigade- Walker

82nd Indiana: .58 caliber Austrian Lorenz rifles

17th Ohio: .54 caliber Austrian Lorenz rifles, .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets (two companies)

31st Ohio: .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets, a few .58 caliber M1861 Springfield rifle muskets

38th Ohio: .69 caliber M1842 rifled muskets (Greenwoods), .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets (two companies), a few .69/.71 caliber Belgian/Vincennes rifles

Battery D, 1st Michigan Light Artillery: 2 12-pdr M1841 smoothbore howitzers, 2 10-pdr Parrott rifles, 2 6-pdr James rifles

 

Second Brigade- Spears

85th Illinois: (356) .58 caliber Austrian Lorenz rifles

14th Michigan: .54 caliber Austrian Lorenz rifles

1st Tennessee (U.S.): .54 caliber Austrian Lorenz rifles

2nd Tennessee (U.S.): .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets (one company return only)

3rd Tennessee Cavalry (U.S.) Mixed: .58 caliber M1861 Springfield rifle muskets and .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets

10th Wisconsin Battery: 6 6-pdr M1841 field guns

 

Private Andrew Rhoads of Co. G of the 57th Indiana was killed in action on December 31, 1862. 

Left Wing- Crittenden

First Division- Wood

First Brigade- Hascall

100th Illinois: (433) .58 caliber Austrian Lorenz rifles, (7) .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets, (6). 58 caliber M1861 Springfield rifle muskets

58th Indiana: .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets, some .69 caliber altered to percussion rifles

3rd Kentucky: Mix of .69 caliber altered to percussion muskets, .54 caliber Austrian Lorenz rifles, and some .69 caliber M1842 smoothbores

26th Ohio: .69 caliber M1842 rifled muskets (Greenwoods), a few .58 caliber M1861 Springfield rifle muskets

8th Indiana Battery: 2 6-pdr M1841 smoothbore field guns, 4 6-pdr James rifles (6 guns)

 

Second Brigade- Wagner

15th Indiana: .58 caliber M1861 Springfield rifle muskets

40th Indiana: .54 caliber Austrian Lorenz rifles, a mix of .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets and .58 caliber M1861 Springfield rifle muskets in Co. F only

57th Indiana: mostly .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets, some .58 caliber French rifle muskets, one company had .58 caliber Austrian Lorenz rifles

97th Ohio: .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets

10th Indiana Battery: 2 12-pdr M1841 smoothbore howitzers, 4 10-pdr Parrott rifles (6 guns)

 

Third Brigade- Harker

51st Indiana: mostly .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets, a few .58 caliber M1861 Springfield rifle muskets

73rd Indiana: .69 caliber M1842 rifled muskets (one three companies made returns-balance of regt. unknown)

13th Michigan: .58 caliber Springfield rifle muskets

64th Ohio: .58 caliber Springfield rifle muskets

65th Ohio: .58 caliber Springfield rifle muskets

6th Ohio Battery: 2 6-pdr M1841 smoothbore field guns, 4 10-pdr Parrott rifles (6 guns)

 

Second Division- Palmer

First Brigade- Cruft

31st Indiana: .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets

1st Kentucky: .54 caliber Austrian Lorenz rifles, .69 caliber M1842 smoothbores (one company)

2nd Kentucky: mostly .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets, some .69 caliber M1842 smoothbores, .58 caliber Springfield rifle muskets (one company)

90th Ohio: .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets

 

Second Brigade- Hazen

110th Illinois: (129) .69 caliber M1842 smoothbores, (75) .69 caliber M1842 rifled muskets, (20) .58 caliber Springfield rifle muskets

9th Indiana: .58 caliber Springfield rifle muskets

6th Kentucky: .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets

41st Ohio: .69 caliber altered to percussion rifled muskets (Greenwoods)

 

Third Brigade- Grose

84th Illinois: (371) .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets

36th Indiana: .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets

23rd Kentucky: .54 caliber Lorenz rifle muskets

6th Ohio: .69 caliber Dresden rifle muskets (six companies), .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets (four companies)

24th Ohio: .58 caliber Springfield rifle muskets (five companies), .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets (five companies)

 

Divisional artillery

Battery B, 1st OVLA: 4 10-pdr Parrott rifles (4 guns)

Battery F, 1st OVLA: 4 6-pdr M1841 smoothbore field guns, 2 12-pdr M1841 smoothbore howitzers (6 guns)

 

Co. H of the "Iron 44th" Indiana posing at their camp in Chattanooga, Tennessee in the spring of 1864.

Third Division- Van Cleve

First Brigade- Beatty

79th Indiana: .69/.71 caliber Belgian or Vincennes rifle muskets

9th Kentucky: .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets, a few companies had .69 caliber M1842 smoothbores

11th Kentucky: Mixed: .58 caliber Springfield rifle muskets, .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets, and .69 caliber M1842 smoothbores

19th Ohio: mostly .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets, some .69 caliber Belgian pander rifles, and a few .69 caliber U.S. model smoothbores


Second Brigade- Fyffe

44th Indiana: mostly .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets, a few .69 caliber French/Belgian rifle muskets

86th Indiana: .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets

13th Ohio: .69 caliber M1842 smoothbores (eight companies), .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets (two companies)

59th Ohio: .69 caliber M1842 smoothbores (eight companies), .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets (two companies)

 

Third Brigade- Price

35th Indiana: .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets, .58 caliber M1861 Springfield rifle muskets (one company)

8th Kentucky: .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets (only two companies made out a return- balance unknown)

21st Kentucky: Mixed: .58 caliber M1861 Springfield rifle muskets, .577 caliber Enfield rifle muskets, and a few .69 caliber M1842 rifled muskets

51st Ohio: some .69 caliber M1842 rifled muskets (Greenwoods), and some .69/.71 caliber Belgian/Vincennes rifles

99th Ohio: .58 caliber M1861 Springfield rifle muskets (only one company made out a return); balance were armed with .577 Enfield rifle muskets when they left the state in September 1862

 

Divisional Artillery:

7th Indiana Battery: 4 10-pdr Parrott rifles (4 guns)

Battery B, 26th Pennsylvania Light Artillery: 4 6-pdr M1841 smoothbore field guns, 2 6-pdr James rifles (6 guns)

 



Cavalry Corps- Stanley

First Brigade- Minty

2nd Indiana Cavalry: no return

4th Michigan Cavalry: .56 caliber Colt’s revolving rifles (four companies), .36 and .44 caliber Colt’s revolvers (remaining companies unknown)

3rd Kentucky Cavalry: .50 caliber Smith’s carbines, .36 and .44 caliber Colt’s revolvers (limited returns on this regt.)

7th Pennsylvania Cavalry: .50 caliber Smith’s carbines, .36 caliber Savage revolvers

 

Second Brigade- Zahm

1st Ohio Cavalry: .52 caliber Sharps’ carbines, .36 and .44 caliber Colt’s revolvers, a few .36 caliber Remington revolvers (limited returns on this regt.)

3rd Ohio Cavalry: .52 caliber Sharps’ carbines, .36 caliber Remington revolvers, .36 caliber Savage’s revolvers (limited returns on this regt.)

4th Ohio Cavalry: Mixed: .54 caliber Burnside carbines, .52 caliber Sharps’ carbines, 44 caliber Colt revolvers, .45 caliber Starr revolvers

 

Reserve Cavalry

15th Pennsylvania Cavalry: no return

1st Tennessee Cavalry (U.S.): .54 caliber Burnside carbines and .52 caliber Sharps’ carbines (limited returns on this regt.)

2nd Tennessee Cavalry (U.S.): .52 caliber Sharps’ carbines (limited returns on this regt.)


Cavalry Corps Artillery

Battery D, 1st OVLA:  2 3” Rodman/Ordnance rifles (2 guns)

 

Pioneer Brigade

Chicago Board of Trade: 4 6-pdr M1841 smoothbore field guns, 2 6-pdr James Rifles (6 guns)

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